Friday, May 22, 2020

Phonology - Definition and Observations

Phonology is the branch of linguistics concerned with the study of speech sounds with reference to their distribution and patterning. Adjective: phonological. A linguist who specializes in phonology is known as a phonologist. In Fundamental Concepts in Phonology (2009), Ken Lodge observes that phonology is about differences of meaning signaled by sound. As discussed below, the boundaries between the fields of phonology and phonetics are not always sharply defined. Etymology: From the Greek, sound, voice Observations on Phonology One way to understand the subject matter of phonology is to contrast it with other fields within linguistics. A very brief explanation is that phonology is the study of sound structures in language, which is different from the study of sentence structures (syntax), word structures (morphology), or how languages change over time (historical linguistics). But this is insufficient. An important feature of the structure of a sentence is how it is pronounced--its sound structure. The pronunciation of a given word is also a fundamental part of the structure of a word. And certainly the principles of pronunciation in a language are subject to change over time. So phonology has a relation to numerous domains of linguistics.(David Odden, Introducing Phonology, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2013)The Aim of PhonologyThe aim of phonology is to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages and to explain the variations that occur. We begin by analyzing an ind ividual language to determine which sound units are used and which patterns they form--the languages sound system. We then compare the properties of different sound systems, and work out hypotheses about the rules underlying the use of sounds in particular groups of languages. Ultimately, phonologists want to make statements that apply to all languages. . . .Whereas phonetics is the study of all possible speech sounds, phonology studies the way in which a languages speakers systematically use a selection of these sounds in order to express meaning.There is a further way of drawing the distinction. No two speakers have anatomically identical vocal tracts, and thus no one produces sounds in exactly the same way as anyone else. . . . Yet when using our language we are able to discount much of this variation, and focus on only those sounds, or properties of sound, that are important for the communication of meaning. We think of our fellow speakers as using the same sounds, even though a coustically they are not. Phonology is the study of how we find order within the apparent chaos of speech sounds.(David Crystal, How Language Works. Overlook Press, 2005)- When we talk about the sound system of English, we are referring to the number of phonemes which are used in a language and to how they are organized.(David Crystal, The Cambridge Encylopedia of the English Language, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 2003)Phoneme Systems[P]honology is not only about phonemes and allophones. Phonology also concerns itself with the principles governing the phoneme systems--that is, with what sounds languages like to have, which sets of sounds are most common (and why) and which are rare (and also why). It turns out that there are prototype-based explanations for why the phoneme system of the languages of the world have the sounds that they do, with physiological/acoustic/perceptual explanations for the preference for some sounds over others.(Geoffrey S. Nathan, Phonology: A C ognitive Grammar Introduction. John Benjamins, 2008)The Phonetics-Phonology InterfacePhonetics interfaces with phonology in three ways. First, phonetics defines distinctive features. Second, phonetics explains many phonological patterns. These two interfaces constitute what has come to be called the substantive grounding of phonology (Archangeli Pulleyblank, 1994). Finally, phonetics implements phonological representations.The number and depth of these interfaces is so great that one is naturally moved to ask how autonomous phonetics and phonology are from one another and whether one can be largely reduced to the other. The answers to these questions in the current literature could not differ more. At one extreme, Ohala (1990b) argues that there is in fact no interface between phonetics and phonology because the latter can largely if not completely be reduced to the former. At the opposite extreme, Hale Reiss (2000b) argue for excluding phonetics entirely from phonology because th e latter is about computation, while the former is about something else. Between these extremes is a large variety of other answers to these questions . . ..(John Kingston, The Phonetics-Phonology Interface. The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, ed. by Paul de Lacy. Cambridge University Press, 2007)Phonemics and PhonologyPhonemics is the study of phonemes in their various aspects, i.e. their establishment, description, occurrence, arrangement, etc. Phonemes fall under two categories, segmental or linear phonemes and suprasegmental or non-linear phonemes  . . .. The term phonemics, with the above-mentioned sense attached to it,  was widely used in the heyday of post-Bloomfieldian linguistics in America, in particular from the 1930s to the 1950s, and continues to be used by present-day post-Bloomfieldians. Note in this connection that Leonard Bloomsfield (1887-1949) used the term phonology, not phonemics, and talked about primary phonemes and secondary phonemes while using the adje ctival form phonemic elsewhere. The term phonology, not phonemics, is generally used by contemporary linguists of other schools.(Tsutomu Akamatsu, Phonology. The  Linguistics Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., edited by  Kirsten Malmkjaer. Routledge, 2004)​ Pronunciation: fah-NOL-ah-gee

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Us Mexico Case Study. Comparative Analysis and Solutions...

Introduction The problem of intercultural communication is not unique. While communicating with people from other countries at least once everyone has experienced the feeling of being misunderstood. Such misunderstanding in business will certainly lead to a failure, so, besides being a good entrepreneur and professional in economics, being interculturally competent is as important, or even the most important issue while conducting international business. The topic of this termpaper is â€Å"Mexico and U.S.: Practical issues of business collaboration† This topic is urgent because, although the two countries that make up North America are physically close, they have absolutely different cultural values that arise from their history,†¦show more content†¦Mexicans are far less tolerant of abrasiveness and insensitivity in managerial styles than Americans are. US American style is opposite to gaining subordinates support and compliance, thus, for Mexicans, the US Americans ’ tendency to judge a person for what they do and how efficiently they do it has no sense. Such an attitude towards others reduces the value of interpersonal relationships and is thought to be superficial for people who come from nurturing countries, to which Mexico belongs. Lack of respect for personality results in a lack of motivation to stand out for one’s boss. From the US executive’s perspective, the Mexicans indifference to continually strive for greater and greater achievement is believed to reflect a basic laziness or lack of ambitiousness. That is why foreign executives become harsh disciplinarians which only serves to promote increasingly more subtle forms of resistance. 1.2. Obedience to People vs. Obedience to Rules From the U.S. belief that all people are basically the same it follows logically that one would not look for any special favors or exceptions from the rules and regulations which govern social interactions. There is a strong belief in th e saying, No one isShow MoreRelatedUs Mexico Case Study. Comparative Analysis and Solutions for Successful Business Relations4954 Words   |  20 Pagesonce everyone has experienced the feeling of being misunderstood. Such misunderstanding in business will certainly lead to a failure, so, besides being a good entrepreneur and professional in economics, being interculturally competent is as important, or even the most important issue while conducting international business. The topic of this termpaper is â€Å"Mexico and U.S.: Practical issues of business collaboration† This topic is urgent because, although the two countries that make up NorthRead MoreImpact of Culture on Negotiating Styles: in Relation1935 Words   |  8 PagesImpact of Culture on Negotiating Styles: in Relation to Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture Abstract An effective business negotiation is very significant in achieving a successful business relationship. As the businesses expand globally, so do the conflicts between the interacting parties. These conflicts only get amplified if the interacting parties are from different cultural background. An individual s cultural background plays a big role in his perception, which affects hisRead MoreA Comparative Study of Business Strategies Between Korea and Japan: a Case of Electronics Items Between Samsung and Sony5656 Words   |  23 PagesA COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESS STRATEGIES BETWEEN KOREA AND JAPAN: A CASE OF ELECTRONICS ITEMS BETWEEN SAMSUNG AND SONY CHOONG Y. LEE * *Daniel Froes Batata, Ha Sook Kim, Gladys A. Kelce College of Business, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS 66762, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Sony, one of the world‟s most prominent companies in the electronics industry from Japan, has dominated the markets from all over the world for a long time since 1970s. Over t he last decade, however, it has faced challenges toRead MoreTransfer Pricing20501 Words   |  83 Pagesof Netherlands, Prof. Einaudi of Italy, Prof. Seligman of the USA, Prof.Stamp of UK) to conduct a theoretical study of international double taxation. Their expert report published in 1923[6] was used as the basis of the 1928 models[7] which in turn find their pattern repeated in many of the Treaties of today. 3.b) 1935 Model convention[8] The 1935 Model Convention defined the term â€Å"business income† and was the first model treaty to contain specific provision on allocation of profit from one companyRead MoreBp Sustainability Essay28986 Words   |  116 PagesSustainability Review 2010 bp.com/sustainability 2 A letter from our group chief executive / 4 How BP is changing 6 Gulf of Mexico oil spill / 14 How we operate / 22 Energy future 30 Safety / 34 Environment / 38 Society Within hours of the Deepwater Horizon accident, BP teams were working to stop the leak. We also acted to minimize the spill’s impact on the environment by containing, removing and dispersing oil offshore, protecting the shoreline and cleaning up oil that came ashore. And weRead MoreCase Study on the Success and Decline of Starbucks in the Last 10 Years6976 Words   |  28 PagesCase study on the Success and Decline of Starbucks in the last 10 years QUALITATIVE ASSIGNMENT Case study on the Success and Decline of Starbucks in the last 10 years 1st October 2011 Read MoreDarden Mba Resumes16768 Words   |  68 Pagesvirginia.edu EDUCATION Darden Graduate School of Business Administration University of Virginia Candidate for Master of Business Administration, May 2011 ï‚ · Awarded Batten Innovation Scholarship (merit-based full tuition scholarship); ï‚ · GMAT: 730; AWA: 5.5 ï‚ · Member of Finance Club, Energy Club and Darden Capital Management Club Charlottesville, VA Nanyang Technological University Singapore Bachelor of Engineering (Computer Engineering) and Minor in Business, June 2006 ï‚ · Awarded full scholarship (amongRead MoreSkywest Case Study5493 Words   |  22 PagesBrandon Cisco 15 March 2013 GBA 490 Case Analysis SkyWest, Inc. Competitive Analysis Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...3 2. Competitive Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.5 3. Recommendations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.7 4. Appendix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...9 5. Sources†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦22 Executive Summary This report examines the factors pertaining to SkyWest, Inc. (referred to in this document as SkyWest)Read MoreThe World Is Flat8659 Words   |  35 Pageswith Notes / Analysis †¢ Chapters 1 - 4 - How the World Became Flat †¢ Chapters 5 - 9 - America and the Flat World †¢ Chapter 10 - Developing Countries and the Flat World †¢ Chapter 11 - Companies and the Flat World †¢ Chapters 12 - 14 - Geopolitics and the Flat World †¢ Chapter 15 - Conclusion: Imagination Overall Analysis †¢ Structure Analysis †¢ Key Facts †¢ Important Quotations / Memorable Quotes and Analysis Questions †¢ Memorable Quotes Quiz †¢ Vocabulary †¢ Study Questions/Multiple-ChoiceRead MoreThe Cause of Globalization18688 Words   |  75 PagesGarrett / CAUSES OF GLOBALIZATION COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES / August-September 2000 The most important causes of globalization differ among the three major components of international market integration: trade, multinational production, and international finance. The information technology revolution has made it very difficult for governments to control cross-border capital movements, even if they have political incentives to do so. Governments can still restrict the multinationalization of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Eating Disorder Research Paper Outline Free Essays

string(27) " shows all over the world\." Take A Bite On This Attention Getter: February 4, 1983 was the day that opened the eyes of America to the view of the damaging effects of eating disorders. This day marks the death of the very famous singer of the time, Karen Carpenter. Looking glamorous and confident on the outside, most did not know she was suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (B5). We will write a custom essay sample on Eating Disorder Research Paper Outline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Throughout her teenage years, she was overweight. In 1967, weighing 140 pounds, Karen was put on a water diet by her doctor. This brought her down to 120 pounds (B6). Even though she was now at a healthy weight, she was still insecure due to her large amount of celebrity peers who were the ideal, perfect weight. Taking dozens of thyroid pills a day and throwing up the little food she ate, by 1975 Karen weighed 80 pounds. Her body became so weak that during one of her performances in Las Vegas, she collapsed on stage (B7). She was then finally admitted into the hospital, where it was confirmed she was 35 pounds underweight. Shocked by this, Karen consulted with doctors and therapists to do anything she could to return back to a healthy weight. However, it was too late. Due to the excess laxatives and starvation, Karen’s body could not take anymore (B8). Her death was a surprise to America, unaware of the dangers of eating disorders. Defintion of topic/terms: Types of Eating Disorders: The three types of eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating. Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which a person sees themselves as overweight, even when they are unbelievably skinny. An anorexic might exercise excessively and starve themselves to lose more weight. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which a person eats large amounts of food, followed by dangerous measures to control his or her weight. Examples of this are excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting (purging), and the abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Binge Eating: An eating disorder in which one consumes enormous amounts of food at a time, without the self-induced methods of later getting rid of it. One suffering from this will usually eat by themselves out of embarrassment, and will feel like they have lost control. I) The way the media affects eating disorders is a serious problem A) More and more teens are affected by eating disorders every day. 1) The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) has an estimate of 35 million Americans who are affected by anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. (F1) 2) Eating disorders affect 3% to 5% of the American female population. (B3) 3) 1% to 3% of teenage girls in middle and high school are affected only by bulimia, while 1% to 4% are affected in college. H3) 4) The director of the Renfrew Center of Southern Connecticut, named Burnell, states that one percent of American women are affected by anorexia and five percent are bulimic. The Renfrew Center is an eating disorder clinic in Wilton. (F6) 5) According to Britain’s National Health Service, over the past three years children eight years and younger have been admitted to the hospital for anorexia. From age five to six 98 have been admitted, and from age seven to eight, 99. (A1) B) With more expos ure to the media, more begin to suffer from an eating disorder. ) Dr. Anne Becker, the owner of the Eating Disorder Clinic at Harvard Medical School, did a study after TV was released to the island of Fiji in 1995. After three years, there was an enormous rise in eating disorders, where around 74% of the females said they felt too fat. This culture used to believe â€Å"you gained weight† was a compliment. (B4) 2) Using the self-improvement program Media Smart, doctors Simon Wilksch and Tracey Wade conducted a study of 13 year olds on how to help teens get a better self-image of themselves. After three years, the students who watched the program did not have an increase of body concerns, while the ones that did not watch it, had an increase. (E2) 3) Sarah Murnen, a professor of psychology at Kenyon College in Gambler, Ohio, did a study on how fashion magazines affected body image. Her research reviewed 21 studies of the media’s affect on more than 6,000 girls, 10 years or older. The results showed that the more the girls were exposed to the fashion magazines, the more they struggled to have a positive body image. L2) C) The media should decrease its amount of influence on having the â€Å"perfect† body because more and more people are affected by eating disorders due to the large impact from celebrities, the press, and advertisement. II) Many people look up to celebrities as role models, while most are portrayed as having the ideal, skinny body. A) While many look up and want to be just like them, celebrities are depicted in a way that is unreal and abnorm al. 1) Colleen Thompson, an expert on eating disorders, explains, â€Å"Many teenagers need a role model and someone to look up to. Unfortunately, too many of them choose fashion models or actresses as role models, they paste picture of them all over their rooms, and some will resort to dangerous methods of weight control to try and look like their idols. † (J1) 2) Research shows that the more exposed to models and pictures in the media, the more one is to believe they have to look like that. â€Å"This happens even though women know pictures have clearly been airbrushed,† Tara Diversi, dietitian and co-author of The Good Enough Diet, explains, â€Å"The rational brain knows it’s not real, but the emotional brain doesn’t. (C3) 3) â€Å"These girls are anomalies of nature. They are freaks of nature. They are not average. They are naturally thin and have incredibly long legs compared to the rest of their body. Their eyes are wide set apart. Their cheekbones are high,† explains Kelly Cutrone, the owner of People’s Revolution. This is a very popular company that displays fash ion shows all over the world. You read "Eating Disorder Research Paper Outline" in category "Free Research Paper Samples" She then goes on to say, â€Å"If we get a girl who is bigger than a 4, she is not going to fit the clothes. Clothes look better on thin people. The fabric hangs better. (L3) 4) â€Å"We know more about women who look good than we know about women who do good,† protests Audrey Brasich, a former teen model and author of All Made Up: A Girl’s Guide to Seeing Through Celebrity Hype and Celebrating Real Beauty. (L4) 5) Barbie would be at least five feet, nine inches tall; weighing 100 pounds is she was a real human. (K1) 6) Statistics from a poll conducted by NEDA, show that 64% of adults believe that media is the cause of eating disorders. Out of this amount, 69% are females, and 58% of male’s supported it. F7) 7) Out of every mental illness, anorexia has the highest mortality rate, usually in the form of suicide. (F4) 8) Around 5% to 20% of an orexia patients will die. (H9) B) Celebrities themselves suffer from eating disorders. 1) Melissa Dehart, a former television reporter, suffers from anorexia and once dropped to 56 pounds. Entertainment Tonight has followed her story since 2003. (F14) 2) Kate Dillon, a popular model, admitted she got the idea to purge from watching a television movie. In the mid-1990’s, she quit modeling when ordered to lose 20 pounds. She only weighed 125. She is now a plus-size model. (F16) 3) According to Beth McGilley, a Wichita Kansa psychologist specializing in eating disorders, trauma, and working with athletes, those suffering with eating disorders need, on average, five to seven years of treatment (K2). 4) The Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD0 state that anorexia treatment cost almost $30,000 a month and $100,000 for outpatient treatments. Insurance usually does not cover any of this. (F8). 4) According to NEDA, out of the 35 million affected by eating disorders, ten million women and one million men suffer from anorexia and bulimia, while the other 25 million suffer from binge eating. (F5) 5) Oprah Winfrey did a huge story about a woman who weighed 38 pounds from Rudine. She dies in 1995. (F15) 6) In 2006, the Madrid fashion show banned any models that did not fall into a healthy weight range. For example, a 5-foot-9 woman would need to weigh at least 125 pounds. L1) III) The press does much research and much damage on the increasing number of those affected by eating disorders. A) The press is a large contributor to the research done on the different disorders. 1) In 2004, the National Center of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion conducted a poll of different methods students used to lose weight. Nationwide, 13. 3% did not eat anything for 24 hours or more, 9. 2% took diet pills, powders, or liquids, and 6% took laxatives or vomited. (F9) 2) 95% of all people on diets will gain back all of their weight within 5 years. D1) 3) In Australia, 50% of girls and 33% of boys believe they are overweight, even though they are considered healthy. (E1) 4) Out of all anorexia patients, 90% to 95% are women, while the other small percentage of 5% to 10% is males. (H7) 5) Out of all bulimia patients, only 20% are males, while the other 80% are females. (H4) B) Considering its large amount of help in research, the press also contributes a large amount to the number of those suffering from eating disorders. ) Tara Diversi says, â€Å"Being overweight reduces your life expectancy by three years, but being unhappy reduces it to nine years. † (C4) 2) Proven by a recent U. S. survey, 97% of women say an everage of 13 things they dislike about themselves every day. (C1) 3) More than 85 million American adults suffer from obesity and binge eating. (F12) 4) Out of every mental illness, eating disor ders contribute to the highest death rate, topping off depression and schizophrenia. (D2) 5) Starvation is performed by almost eleven million Americans who suffer from eating disorders. F10) 6) The serious effects of anorexia are abnormal heart rate, low blood pressure, loss of bone density, weak muscles, dehydration which can lead to kidney failure, fatigue, hair loss, dry skin, and formation of hair all over the body to help keep it warm. (H6). 7) The serious effects of bulimia are electrolyte imbalances from the loss of potassium and sodium from the body, gastric rupture during bingeing, tooth decay and staining from the stomach acids of continuous vomiting, and irregular bowel movements from laxative and diuretic use. H2) IV) Advertisements have a huge affect on one’s eating habits. A) Advertisement has a great affect on obesity. 1) According to research by the Kaiser Family Foundation and researchers at Indiana University, kids 2 to 7 years old view unhealthy food commer cials 12 times a day and around 4,400 times a year. Children 8 to 12 watch around 21 a day, with around 7,600 a year. Teens view these commercials around 17 times a day, with around 6,600 per year. (G1) 2) Out of all the ads viewed by 2 to 7 year-old children, 32% of them are about food and drinks, 25% for 9 to 13 year olds, and 22% for teens. (G6) ) Out of all kid commercials on food, 34% is about candy and snacks, 28% on usually sugared cereals, 10% on fast food, 4% for dairy products, 1% about fruit juices, and nothing for fruits and vegetables. (G7). 4) According to the Kaiser Family Foundation and Indiana University study, which recorded more than 40,000 ads, 9,000 were about food and drinks. (G5) 5) â€Å"If any parent tried to talk to their kids 10 or 20 times a day about healthy eating, they’d be considered the biggest nag ever, and yet that’s how many bad food messages kids are seeing on TV every day,† interprets Margo Wootan of the Center of Science in Public Interest. G4) 6) Every year more than ten billion dollars is spent on advertising food and drinks for children. (G3) 7) Obesity affects more than 66% of all Americans. (B1) 8) Around 25 million or one-third of teens and children are obese or overweight. (G2) B) Negative body image is greatly affected by advertisement. 1) Dove sponsored a study of 445 women, in which 15% admitted they were worried about their image affecting their jobs, while 20% said they dread about their body almost every day. (A2) ) A study done on 2000 women in the UK proved that women’s first impression of other women is their size and weight. (C2) 3) Cocaine, Adderall, and other caffeine-related diet drugs are very commonly used in order for women to lose weight. (B2) C) Advertisement influences girls in both good and bad ways. 1) Ellen Rome is a spokeswoman for the Chicago-based Academy for Eating Disorders, as well as a pediatrician in Cleveland. She states, â€Å"The media reflects and exace rbates the problems. These teen girls watch and read and observe and emulate. † (F13) 2) â€Å"We do not run photos of anybody in magazines who we believe to be at an unhealthy weight,† explains Glamour’s Cynthia Leive who concludes that the media has a huge influence on women’s body images and should represent women of all different sizes. (L5) V) Discuss the Future (Visualization). A) The rates of eating disorders will go down. 1) More will not feel the need to have the perfect â€Å"ideal† body. 2) Without celebrity role models looking flawless, most will not feel the eed to look just like them B) More people will have better body images of themselves. 1) People will have more confidence without the need to be so skinny. 2) More will understand their body weight and shape is fine just the way it is. C) Society will be more accepting. 1) People will not judge others as much because the status quo will include a variety of body shapes. 2) With the celebrities and press influencing less on being perfect, more will accept what others look like. Call to Action: Research more on the causes and effects of eating disorders * Bring about this information of how the media influences this to representatives in your community, state, or Congress * Write letters to popular magazines, newspapers, or television shows explaining how they are affecting society * Spread the word by protesting or bringing up the topic at public events in order for more people to be exposed to this * Get others to help by voting for those who agree that there needs to be a change in how the media exposes the â€Å"perfect† body How to cite Eating Disorder Research Paper Outline, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

Learner Log Book Essay Example

Learner Log Book Essay Learner Log Book LLB I. INSTRUCTIONS The purpose of the Learner’s Log Book (LLB) is to document the achievements of the learner in a central repository that will be considered as evidence on the effectiveness of the learning process. It is a ‘monitoring tool’ that e-tutors use to report on individual learners’ progress and it is a way of ensuring that learners: We will write a custom essay sample on Learner Log Book specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Learner Log Book specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Learner Log Book specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer u Are engaged in their learning process u They are experimenting by doing the tasks subscribed to them by the e-tutor. u Avoid plagiarism because learners have to be engaged on a continuous basis and the informal assessment can therefore be used to ensure consistency with the main formal assessment. u Provide e-Tutors with the opportunity to get to know the learners evaluate them and mentor them properly. u There are templates that will reflect whether learners read, whether they understand, whether they assimilate the knowledge, whether they develop enquiry ability, whether they have the potential to conduct critical thinking and whether they can reflect on the knowledge accumulated by relating to real situations. The onus is mainly on learners to furnish the required information in the templates after each unit based on the Read and Analyze Activity. After filling the information in the template, they need to e-mail it back to the e-Tutor. e-Tutor will then comments on the work done and the involvement that takes place and give overall impressions on the learners at the end of the module. II. GENERAL INFORMATION Name: Omar Obaid Khadem ID Number: 200004230 Course Title: Principles of Business Excellence Section: 2 Article Title: Assessing customer focus using the EFQM Excellence Model: a local government case Brian Jacobs and Steven Suckling Staffordshire University, Stafford, UK Date of Submission: 16/09/2012 Date of Received Feedback: ———————————————– III. SUMMARY (100-200 words) The EFQM Excellence Model is a way for companies to assess their quality. The South Staffordshire Council contact center wanted to determine whether it was focused on the customer when delivering local services. By using the excellence model, the managers were able to determine where their problem lay, and they found ways to deal with it. The managers were able to asses themselves, by focusing on their performance towards the customers. By using the model, the managers were able to identify key issues that were problematic within the organization. They were able to determine the presence of different interrelationships, and how these relationships affected the customer, and affected the council’s efforts to focus on the customers. IV. KEY LEARNING POINTS 1. The relevance of the EFQM Excellence Model, and the benefits that companies hope to achieve by using the model for self-assessment 2. The importance of leadership in identifying the need for excellence, and establishing and ensuring the continuity of excellence within the organization 3. Relevance of all the stakeholders, including the employees, society, shareholders, and suppliers within the organization 4. Importance of having a balanced approach in ensuring the success of the organization, and in ensuring that the organization performs excellently 5. Ways that the EFQM Model can be used effectively in assessing and determining issues related to the customers 6. The importance of self-assessment to organizations, especially in determining problematic areas, which may hinder the organization from achieving its goals V. RELEVANT STATEMENTS TO THE SESSION Not Applicable VI. CRITICAL ANALYSIS Many organizations tend to look for ways of developing excellence within their various systems and processes. One of the most recognized and most successful companies in the UAE is Emirates Airlines. The airline tries to achieve excellence by ensuring that it continues to offer services that satisfy its customers. It recognizes the importance of the shareholders and other individuals and institutions that have financial interests in the company by ensuring that it offers services that will attract more customers and ensure higher profitability. It ensures that it satisfies the customers’ needs by developing services that exceed the customers’ expectations. The company recognizes the importance of leadership in delivering its objectives. It encourages a leadership approach and style of management that encourages the employees to deliver more. The company also recognizes the importance of employees to an organization. It ensures that it treats its employees well and it mo tivates them through various means. This makes the employees eager to work. They feel important and valuable to the company, and they are interested in the company’s success. The company works with different partners around the world. It operates in seventy countries, and it has partners in all its areas of operation. This has enabled it to be successful, since it has been able to use different approaches, relevant to the specific countries, yet it has still maintained its core principles. VII. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The article brings out several important issues concerning achieving excellence within the organization. One of the most important aspects that the council focused on was to identify the various interrelationships between the relevant stakeholders. In this case, the council was concerned with the customers, and it was able to identify the interrelationships that existed among the customers. Organizations in the UAE can benefit by doing the same thing. They need to not only look at how the employees within the organizations can help in attaining excellence, but also look at how the customers affect the delivery of services. Finding out more about the customers is essential to the success of the organization. The article highlights the importance of leadership in creating focus for the organization, and in ensuring the delivery of services. VIII. LEARNING REFLECTIONS Excellence is not about doing things in the right manner, but it involves creating a balance between all the people involved. Organizations do not exist in a vacuum, and they need the society to thrive. Many organizations tend to ignore the value and importance of the society, yet they operate within the society. Some of them only remember the society as part of a publicity campaign and when ensuring corporate social responsibility, if the law demands it. Excellence involves balancing the needs of the society. The organization’s potential customers are just as important as its current customers are. Although many organizations understand the importance and benefits of satisfying their customers, some of them only design programs that will benefit the customers at that particular time, and they do not examine the future implications of those programs. Some programs are short lived, and this means that organizations have to spend more time, money, and personnel to develop other programs in future. Understanding the importance of potential customers, and their possible needs will enable organizations to develop long-term strategies and programs. Every organization can benefit from having partners. Organizations need to identify beneficial partners, who can assist in times of difficulties. IX. e-TUTOR COMMENTS AND FEEDBACK Mark: Learner Log Book LLB I. INSTRUCTIONS The purpose of the Learner’s Log Book (LLB) is to document the achievements of the learner in a central repository that will be considered as evidence on the effectiveness of the learning process. It is a ‘monitoring tool’ that e-tutors use to report on individual learners’ progress and it is a way of ensuring that learners: u Are engaged in their learning process u They are experimenting by doing the tasks subscribed to them by the e-tutor. u Avoid plagiarism because learners have to be engaged on a continuous basis and the informal assessment can therefore be used to ensure consistency with the main formal assessment. u Provide e-Tutors with the opportunity to get to know the learners evaluate them and mentor them properly. u There are templates that will reflect whether learners read, whether they understand, whether they assimilate the knowledge, whether they develop enquiry ability, whether they have the potential to conduct critical thinking and whether they can reflect on the knowledge accumulated by relating to real situations. The onus is mainly on learners to furnish the required information in the templates after each unit based on the Read and Analyze Activity. After filling the information in the template, they need to e-mail it back to the e-Tutor. e-Tutor will then comments on the work done and the involvement that takes place and give overall impressions on the learners at the end of the module. II. GENERAL INFORMATION Name: Omar Obaid Khadem ID Number: 200004230 Course Title: Principles of Business Excellence Section: 2 Article Title: Assessing customer focus using the EFQM Excellence Model: a local government case Brian Jacobs and Steven Suckling Staffordshire University, Stafford, UK Date of Submission: 16/09/2012 Date of Received Feedback: ———————————————– III. SUMMARY (100-200 words) The EFQM Excellence Model is a way for companies to assess their quality. The South Staffordshire Council contact center wanted to determine whether it was focused on the customer when delivering local services. By using the excellence model, the managers were able to determine where their problem lay, and they found ways to deal with it. The managers were able to asses themselves, by focusing on their performance towards the customers. By using the model, the managers were able to identify key issues that were problematic within the organization. They were able to determine the presence of different interrelationships, and how these relationships affected the customer, and affected the council’s efforts to focus on the customers. IV. KEY LEARNING POINTS 1. The relevance of the EFQM Excellence Model, and the benefits that companies hope to achieve by using the model for self-assessment 2. The importance of leadership in identifying the need for excellence, and establishing and ensuring the continuity of excellence within the organization 3. Relevance of all the stakeholders, including the employees, society, shareholders, and suppliers within the organization 4. Importance of having a balanced approach in ensuring the success of the organization, and in ensuring that the organization performs excellently 5. Ways that the EFQM Model can be used effectively in assessing and determining issues related to the customers 6. The importance of self-assessment to organizations, especially in determining problematic areas, which may hinder the organization from achieving its goals V. RELEVANT STATEMENTS TO THE SESSION Not Applicable VI. CRITICAL ANALYSIS Many organizations tend to look for ways of developing excellence within their various systems and processes. One of the most recognized and most successful companies in the UAE is Emirates Airlines. The airline tries to achieve excellence by ensuring that it continues to offer services that satisfy its customers. It recognizes the importance of the shareholders and other individuals and institutions that have financial interests in the company by ensuring that it offers services that will attract more customers and ensure higher profitability. It ensures that it satisfies the customers’ needs by developing services that exceed the customers’ expectations. The company recognizes the importance of leadership in delivering its objectives. It encourages a leadership approach and style of management that encourages the employees to deliver more. The company also recognizes the importance of employees to an organization. It ensures that it treats its employees well and it mo tivates them through various means. This makes the employees eager to work. They feel important and valuable to the company, and they are interested in the company’s success. The company works with different partners around the world. It operates in seventy countries, and it has partners in all its areas of operation. This has enabled it to be successful, since it has been able to use different approaches, relevant to the specific countries, yet it has still maintained its core principles. VII. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The article brings out several important issues concerning achieving excellence within the organization. One of the most important aspects that the council focused on was to identify the various interrelationships between the relevant stakeholders. In this case, the council was concerned with the customers, and it was able to identify the interrelationships that existed among the customers. Organizations in the UAE can benefit by doing the same thing. They need to not only look at how the employees within the organizations can help in attaining excellence, but also look at how the customers affect the delivery of services. Finding out more about the customers is essential to the success of the organization. The article highlights the importance of leadership in creating focus for the organization, and in ensuring the delivery of services. VIII. LEARNING REFLECTIONS Excellence is not about doing things in the right manner, but it involves creating a balance between all the people involved. Organizations do not exist in a vacuum, and they need the society to thrive. Many organizations tend to ignore the value and importance of the society, yet they operate within the society. Some of them only remember the society as part of a publicity campaign and when ensuring corporate social responsibility, if the law demands it. Excellence involves balancing the needs of the society. The organization’s potential customers are just as important as its current customers are. Although many organizations understand the importance and benefits of satisfying their customers, some of them only design programs that will benefit the customers at that particular time, and they do not examine the future implications of those programs. Some programs are short lived, and this means that organizations have to spend more time, money, and personnel to develop other programs in future. Understanding the importance of potential customers, and their possible needs will enable organizations to develop long-term strategies and programs. Every organization can benefit from having partners. Organizations need to identify beneficial partners, who can assist in times of difficulties. IX. e-TUTOR COMMENTS AND FEEDBACK Mark:

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption Essay Example

Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption Essay Example Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption Essay Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption Essay Laser and its medical applications Presented by S. vignesh J. sabastian The Advent of the Laser Scalpel Early experimenters with medical lasers pointed out that there are surgical operations that are difficult to perform with the conventional scalpel and that a laser beam might be used instead. Initial trials showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue easily and neatly. The surgeon could direct the beam from any angle by using a mirror mounted on a movable metal arm. Several advantages of laser surgery quickly became apparent. First, the light beam is consistent, which means that it gives off the same amount of energy from In this photo taken during open-heart surgery, a doctor uses a laser probe to punch small holes in the patients heart muscle to increase the organs blood flow. one second to the next. So as long as the beam is moving along, the cut it makes (the incision) does not vary in depth; whereas when using a scalpel a doctor can accidentally make part of the incision too deep. A second advantage of the surgical laser is that the hot beam cauterizes, or seals off, the open blood vessels as it moves along. This works well mainly for small vessels, such as those in the skin. The doctor still has to seal off the larger blood vessels using conventional methods. ) Still another advantage is that the cells in human tissue do not conduct heat very well, so the skin or any other tissue near the laser incision does not get very hot and is not affected by the beam. This advantage of laser surgery is very he lpful when a doctor must operate on a tiny area that is surrounded by healthy tissue or organs. It should be pointed out that the laser scalpel is not necessarily the best tool to use in every operation. Some doctors feel that while the laser is useful in some situations, it will never totally replace the scalpel. Others are more optimistic and see a day when more advanced lasers will make the scalpel a thing of the past. The second of these views may prove to be the most accurate, for surgical use of lasers is rapidly advancing. At first, lasers were considered most effective in operating on areas that are easy to reach- areas on the bodys exterior, including the skin, mouth, nose, ears, and eyes. But in recent years doctors have demonstrated remarkable progress in developing laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery. Of course, in order to be able to direct the laser beam the doctor must be able to see inside the body. In some cases this is a simple matter of making an incision and opening up the area to be operated on. But there are situations in which this step can be avoided. Cleaning Arteries with Light For instance, lasers are increasingly used to clean plaque from peoples arteries. Plaque is a tough fatty substance that can build up on the inside walls of the arteries. Eventually the vessels can get so clogged that blood does not flow normally, and the result can be a heart attack or stroke, both of which are serious and sometimes fatal. The traditional method for removing the plaque involves opening the chest and making several incisions, a long and sometimes risky operation. It is also expensive and requires weeks for recovery. An effective alternative is to use a laser beam to burn away the plaque. The key to making this work is the doctors ability to see inside the artery and direct the beam, another area in which fiber optics and lasers are combined into a modern wonder tool. An optic fiber that has been connected to a tiny television camera can be inserted into an artery. These elements now become a miniature sensor that allows the doctor and nurses to see inside the artery while a second fiber is inserted to carry the bursts of light that will burn away the plaque. The technique works in the following way. The fiber-optic array is inserted into a blood vessel in an arm or leg and moved slowly into the area of the heart and blocked arteries. When the array is in place the laser is fired and the plaque destroyed, and then the exhaust vapors are sucked back through a tiny hollow tube that is inserted along with the optical fibers. When the artery has been cleaned out the doctor removes the fibers and tube, and the operation is finished. This medical process is known as laser angioplasty. It has several obvious advantages. First, no incision is needed (except for the small one in the vessel to insert the fibers). There is also little or no bleeding, and the patient can enjoy total recovery in a day or two. Laser angioplasty does have some potential risks that must be considered. First, when the laser beam fires at the plaque it must be aimed very carefully ecause a slight miss could cut through the wall of the artery and cause serious bleeding. The patients chest would then have to be opened up after all. Another problem involves small pieces of burnt debris from the Surgeons use a tiny laser to cut away tissue in a gallbladder operation. The laser and a tiny camera are inserted into the navel, so no abdominal incision is necessary. . Lasers Heal and Reshape the Eyes Some of the most remarkable breakthroughs fo r medical lasers have been in the area of ophthalmology, the study of the structure and diseases of the eye. One reason that laser beams are so useful in treating the eye is that the cornea, the coating that covers the eyeball and admits light into the interior of the eye, is transparent. Since it is designed to admit ordinary light, the cornea lets in laser light just as well and remains unaffected by the beam. First, the laser is very useful in removing extraneous blood vessels that can form on the retina- the thin, light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eyeball. It is on the retina that the images of the things the eye sees are formed. Damage to the retina can sometimes cause blindness. The laser most often used in the treatment of this condition is powered by a medium of argon gas. The doctor aims the beam through the cornea and burns away the tangle of blood vessels covering the retina. The procedure takes only a few minutes and can be done in the doctors office. The laser can also repair a detached retina- one that has broken loose from the rear part of the eyeball. Before the advent of lasers detached retinas had to be repaired by hand, and because the retina is so delicate this was a very difficult operation to perform. Using the argon laser, the doctor can actually weld the torn retina back in place. It is perhaps a strange coincidence that Gordon Gould, one of the original inventors of the laser, later had one of his own retinas repaired this way. Another condition that affects the eye is glaucoma, which is characterized by the buildup of fluid in the eye. Normally the eyes natural fluids drain away a little at a time, and the eye stays healthy. In eyes impaired with glaucoma the fluid does not drain properly, and the buildup affects vision; blindness can sometimes result. In some cases drugs can be used to treat glaucoma. If the drugs fail, however, many doctors now turn to the laser to avoid onventional surgery. The laser punches a hole in a preplanned spot and the fluid drains out through the hole. Again, the treatment can be performed in a doctors office instead of a hospital. Using Lasers for Eye Surgery The laser works like a sewing machine to repair a detached retina, the membrane that lines the interior of the eye. The laser beam is adjusted so that it can pass harmlessl y through the lens and focus on tiny spots around the damaged area of the retina. When it is focused, the beam has the intensity to weld or seal the detached area of the retina back against the wall of the eyeball. The patients eyeglass prescription is literally carved inside the cornea with the beam of an excimer laser [a laser device that produces pulses of ultraviolet, or UV, light]. A small flap of the cornea is first removed with a precision knife . . . and an A patient undergoes eye surgery performed by a laser beam. In addition to treating detached retinas, lasers can remove cataracts. inner portion of the cornea is exposed to the excimer laser. After the prescription is carved, the corneal flap that was opened is then put back into place over the ablated [surgically altered] cornea. 6 LASIK does not come without risks. The changes it makes in the cornea are permanent, and the danger of unexpected damage is ever present. However, the procedure has become increasingly popular each year; about a million Americans had it done in the year 2000, and about four thousand surgeons in the United States were trained to perform it. Some Cosmetic Uses of Lasers Medical lasers are also widely used for various types of cosmetic surgery, including the removal of certain kinds of birthmarks. Port-wine stains, reddish purple skin blotches that appear on about three out of every one thousand children, are an example. Such stains can mark any part of the body but are most commonly found on the face and neck. The medical laser is able to remove a port-wine stain for the same reason that a military laser is able to flash a message to a submerged submarine. Both lasers take advantage of the monochromatic quality of laser light, that is, its ability to shine in one specific color. The stain is made up of thousands of tiny malformed blood vessels that have a definite reddish purple color. This color very strongly absorbs a certain shade of green light. In fact, that is why the stain looks red. It absorbs the green and other colors in white light but reflects the red back to peoples eyes. To treat the stain, the doctor runs a wide low-power beam of green light across the discolored area. The mass of blood vessels in the stain absorbs the energetic laser light and becomes so hot that it is actually burned away. The surrounding skin is a different color than the stain, so that skin absorbs only small amounts of the beam and remains unburned. (Of course, the burned A doctor uses an argon laser to remove a port-wine stain, a kind of birthmark. Unwanted tissue is burned away while normal skin remains undamaged. areas must heal, and during this process some minor scarring sometimes occurs. ) Laser-Assisted Dentistry Dentistry is another branch of medicine that has benefited tremendously from laser technology. Indeed, lasers have made some people stop dreading a visit to the dentist. No one enjoys having a cavity drilled, of course. It usually requires an anesthetic (a painkiller like novocaine) that causes uncomfortable numbness in the mouth; also, the sound of the drill can be irritating or even sickening to some people. Many dentists now employ an Nd-YAG laser (which uses a crystal for its lasing medium) instead of a drill for most cavities. The laser treatment takes advantage of the simple fact that the material that forms in a cavity is much softer than the enamel (the hard part of a tooth). The laser is set at a power that is just strong enough to eliminate the decayed tissue but not strong enough to harm the enamel. When treating a very deep cavity bleeding sometimes occurs, and the laser beam often seals off blood vessels and stops the bleeding. The most often asked question about treating cavities with lasers is: Does it hurt? The answer is no. Each burst of laser light from a dental laser lasts only thirty-trillionths of a second, much faster than the amount of time a nerve takes to trigger pain. In other words, the beam would have to last 100 million times longer in order to cause any discomfort. So this sort of treatment requires no anesthetic. Advantages of Lasers for Dental Surgery In this excerpt from an article in The Dental Clinics of North America Robert A. Strauss of the Medical College of Virginia mentions some of the advantages of using lasers for oral surgery. Decreased post-operative swelling is characteristic of laser use [for oral surgery]. Decreased swelling allows for increased safety when performing surgery within the airway [the mouth] . . . and increases the range of surgery that oral surgeons can perform safely without fear of airway compromise. This effect allows the surgeon to perform many procedures in an office or outpatient facility that previously would have required hospitalization. . . . Tissue healing and scarring are also improved with the use of the laser. . . . Laser wounds generally heal with minimal scar formation and . . . often can be left unsutured [without stitches], another distinct advantage. Thus the role of laser in medical field is most predominant.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Timeline and Definition of the Nazca Civilization

Timeline and Definition of the Nazca Civilization The Nasca (sometimes spelled Nazca outside of archaeological texts) Early Intermediate Period [EIP] civilization was located in the Nazca region as defined by the Ica and Grande river drainages, on the southern coast of Peru between about AD 1-750. Chronology The following dates are from Unkel et al. (2012). All dates are calibrated radiocarbon dates. Late Nasca AD 440-640Middle Nasca AD 300-440Early Nasca AD 80-300Initial Nasca   260 BC-80 ADLate Paracas 300 BC-100 Scholars perceive the Nasca as arising out of the Paracas culture, rather than an in-migration of people from another place. The early Nasca culture arose as a loosely-affiliated group of rural villages with self-sufficient subsistence based on corn agriculture. The villages had a distinctive art style, specific rituals, and burial customs. Cahuachi, an important Nasca ceremonial center, was built and became a focus of feasting and ceremonial activities. The Middle Nasca period saw many changes, perhaps brought about by a long drought. Settlement patterns and subsistence and irrigation practices changed, and Cahuachi became less important. By this time, the Nasca were a loose confederacy of chiefdomsnot with a centralized government, but rather autonomous settlements that regularly convened for rituals. By the Late Nasca period, increasing social complexity and warfare led to the movement of people away from the rural farmsteads and into a few larger sites. Culture The Nasca are known for their elaborate textile and ceramic art, including an elaborate mortuary ritual associated with warfare and the taking of trophy heads. More than 150 trophy heads have been identified at Nazca sites, and there are examples of burials of headless bodies, and burials of grave goods without human remains. Gold metallurgy in early Nasca times is comparable to Paracas culture: consisting of low-tech cold-hammered art objects. Some slag sites from copper smelting and other evidence suggest that by the late phase (Late Intermediate Period) the Nasca increased their technological knowledge. The Nasca region is an arid one, and the Nazca developed a sophisticated irrigation system that aided in their survival for so may centuries. The Nazca Lines The Nasca are probably best known to the public for the Nazca Lines, geometric lines and animal shapes etched into the desert plain by the members of this civilization. The Nazca lines were first intensively studied by the German mathemetician Maria Reiche and have been the focus of many silly theories concerning alien landing places. Recent investigations at Nasca include the Project Nasca/Palpa, a photogrammetric study from the Deutschen Archologischen Instituts and Instituto Andino de Estudios Arqueolà ³gicos, using modern GIS methods to record the geoglyphs digitally.​ More on the Nazca: Nazca Lines, Ica Region pottery vessel Archaeological Sites: Cahuachi, Cauchilla, La Muna, Saramarca, Mollake Grande, Primavera, Montegrande, Marcaya, Sources Conlee, Christina A. 2007 Decapitation and Rebirth: A Headless Burial from Nasca, Peru.  Current Anthropology  48(3):438-453. Eerkens, Jelmer W., et al. 2008  Obsidian hydration dating on the South Coast of Peru.  Journal of Archaeological Science  35(8):2231-2239. Kellner, Corina M. and Margaret J. Schoeninger 2008  Waris imperial influence on local Nasca diet: The stable isotope evidence.  Journal of Anthropological Archaeology  27(2):226-243. Knudson, Kelly J., et al. In press  The geographic origins of Nasca trophy heads using strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope data.  Journal of Anthropological Archaeology  in press. Lambers, Karsten, et al. 2007  Combining photogrammetry and laser scanning for the recording and modelling of the Late Intermediate Period site of Pinchango Alto, Palpa, Peru.  Journal of Archaeological Science  34:1702-1712. Rink, W. J. and J.  Bartoll  2005  Dating the geometric Nasca lines in the Peruvian desert.  Antiquity  79(304):390-401. Silverman, Helaine and David Browne 1991  New evidence for the date of the Nazca lines.  Antiquity  65:208-220. Van Gijseghem, Hendrik and Kevin J. Vaughn 2008  Regional integration and the built environment in middle-range societies: Paracas and early Nasca houses and communities.  Journal of Anthropological Archaeology  27(1):111-130. Vaughn, Kevin J. 2004  Households, Crafts, and Feasting in the Ancient Andes: The Village Context of Early Nasca Craft Consumption.  Latin  American Antiquity  15(1):61-88. Vaughn, Kevin J., Christina A. Conlee, Hector Neff, and Katharina Schreiber 2006  Ceramic production in ancient Nasca: provenance analysis of pottery from the Early Nasca and  Tiza  cultures through INAA.  Journal of Archaeological Science  33:681-689. Vaughn, Kevin J. and Hendrik Van Gijseghem 2007  A compositional perspective on the origins of the â€Å"Nasca cult† at Cahuachi.  Journal of Archaeological Science  34(5):814-822.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Changes in Maro environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Changes in Maro environment - Essay Example Wal-Mart in Mexico was impacted due to the 1994 currency crisis. Due to currency crisis, the interest rate was decreased in the Unites States as a result of which the amount of net capital inflows in Mexico was adversely impacted. With this macroeconomic variables’ impact, Wal-Mart’s credit position was affected which brought the firm in unstable position through increased level of cost and decreased productivity. The case of Wal-Mart in Mexico is a practical implication of the political decisions’ impact, which is a macroeconomic factor, upon the operations of a firm (Oxelheim, Wihlborg, & Zhang, 2009). The similarity between the strategies adopted by McDonald’s in China and Wal-Mart in Mexico is that both the firm strived to come out of certain adverse consequences of the macro environment and succeed in the respective markets. The difference between the strategies is that McDonald’s followed ‘customer driven’ strategy whereas Wal-Mart followed ‘competition driven’ strategy. This is because McDonald’s focused on implementing various ways of winning customers’ belief, while on the other hand, Wal-Mart concentrated on gaining competitive advantage through adoption of various innovative strategies such as opening up of banks in its stores. In the case of McDonald’s expansion strategy in China, the Chinese governmental policies towards foreign companies attempting to acquire China’s natural resources impacted upon the firm’s cost during entering the market as they had to make use of channels for avoiding this entry barrier. Utilization of channels accompanied extra cost for the company and also in certain cases, the firm had to compromise with its business structure for reducing the entry barriers. Again the case of Wal-Mart’s expansion strategy in Mexico had been highly impacted due to the trading situations between Mexico and the US resulting in various